6 Advantages of GaN Charger

Change, they say, is the only constant thing in our world. And the same can be said of the human race too. So many technological improvements have been earmarked and carried out, from the borderline crazy to the more realistic concepts. Today, we’re dwelling on another of such changes, which is a new charger that’s getting very popular in the market, and it’s called the GaN charger.

What Are the Advantages of GaN Charger? 

Looking at this product through a bird’s eye view, the GaN Power Supply is more power-efficient, generates less heat, charges faster, and is significantly smaller than the traditional charger.

In this article, we will discuss: What a GaN charger is, How it compares to the traditional chargers & its advantages.

What is a GaN Charger?

GaN is a new, and durable material used in chargers. The focal point of a GaN charger is that it produces less heat. And for the electronic gadget, the less heat means the inner components need less space for heat dissipation, then they could be closer than before. Thus the charger can be smaller than ever before.

GaN vs Silicon

To know more about the GaN Charger, the comparison between GaN Material and the traditional silicon material would be much helpful.

Traditional Silicon

After people’s efforts, silicon changed the transistors material market after the ’80s. It was the market favorite because it conducts electricity better than previously used materials and it was more cost-effective.

However, over the decades, technological improvements drive people to search for higher effective items, and the data-backed realization informs us that the silicon material is not enough for people’s fast charging and higher power demand.

GaN Material

Then the GaN material comes for the chargers. The GaN charger is made to be considerably hard, while also functioning as a wide bandgap semiconductor that’s also reasonably stable, according to mechanical standards. This means that we’ll have less worry about fluctuations in its dependable performance.

Electrical current can pass through components made from GaN faster than silicon. Its higher thermal conductivity and lower on-resistance lead to a faster-charging output.

Advantages of GaN chargers

Having seen some details of what makes up the GaN charger, let’s discuss why the GaN material is more popular today.

1. More power efficiency

Compared with Silicon, GaN is more efficient. Because there is a wider band-gap in it, which can handle larger electrical fields with a smaller transistor. The shorter current paths from the smaller transistors lead to super-low resistance.

This makes the switching speed 100x or 1000x faster than before. The higher speed delivers more power to the battery than the traditional silicon chargers.

2. Less Heat

Heat is a major factor that decides the lifespan of electronic devices. GaN chargers are more efficient at converting the AC(Alternative Current) power into the power that the battery needs. And the resistors are smaller, which generates less heat. This makes it more comfortable to immediately carry around after a duration of prolonged usage.

3. Charging Faster

The power loss of GaN is less, and the rate at which it switches electricity is faster, so it needs less time to charge.

There are claims that GaN chargers can charge up to 2.5x faster than the standard type chargers, which is something we will always love to experience as, based on behavioral data, the world is now focused on speed optimization & getting things done in half the time.

4. Smaller in Size

Silicon heats up more than GaN so the silicon chargers need more space to let the heat out. GaN generates less heat, due to the fact that the heat dissipation space is smaller than Silicon, and the components could be closer. This makes the whole charger smaller in size, and it seems to be the ideal option for convenience on travel, commuting and the leisure walk to the coffee shop nearby.

5. Multiple Charging

Equipped with Type-C USB connectors, we can charge our cell phones, iPad, and laptops simultaneously with one GaN charger. Also, other gadgets not listed above but with Type-C connectors can enjoy its charging power too.

It is a great option for space-saving, especially for people who often travel or are always moving around on business trips. It fits in with the new generation mantra of “less is more” as it provides a minimalistic lifestyle that’s optimized for even greater efficiency.

This really helps much. Once I need to be away from home, I need to take one charger for my cellphone, one charger for a pad and one for laptops, these chargers are really heavy.

6. High Power Wattage

The traditional Power Delivery from chargers is about 65W maximum. For GaN Power Delivery though, it could get to 150W. And with the higher power efficiency and less heat that comes with the GaN charger, it is safer for use than the standard chargers.


The GaN chargers are compatible with existing devices through the use of USB-C interfaces for power delivery. With previous antecedents in view too, we can look forward to smaller sizes from chargers that use GaN. Because of the smaller size that delivers more power, the GaN chargers are more convenient for storage and more efficient. They are also safer to use with multiple devices simultaneously which makes them more compatible with eco-friendly measures as it reduces littering of the environment with product waste.

They will be used for smartphones, laptops and tablets. We can expect these chargers for other battery-operated devices like digital cameras and other electronic devices in the near future. It is also a great example of greener technology that promotes energy efficiency.

As a result, we can expect less time to charge our electronic devices while saving energy and also ensuring way less damage to the Earth’s ozone layer, while increasing the quality of efficient power that’s generated.

3D Printer Power Supply

3D printers are all the rage nowadays, providing various avenues to bring their dream creations into real life. However, there is more to using a printer than the average person might expect. One common factor to consider is the 3D printer power supply options that will be usable. Fortunately, this guide offers helpful information we have compiled to get started.

What are 3D Printer Power Supply Units?

The two most common types of power supply units(PSUs) are linear power supply and switch mode power supply. The 3D printer power supply is the switch mode one, which is also called LED PSU. It works by delivering a fixed DC(Direct Current) voltage(like DC 5V, DC 12V, DC 24V). DC 12V and DC 24V are common types used in 3D printers.

How to choose the right power supply?

Now we get to know what is the 3D printer power supply. Let us move on to the factors to consider when buying the ideal power supply.

1. Budget. First on our list of options is to consider the specific amount of money we want to spend on a 3D power supply unit.

Many people prefer the ATX PSUs because they work well with P.C.s with higher quality than the LED power supply units. They’re costly but provide a wealth of safety benefits. And we need to modify them to work with 3D printers correctly.

Most metal case power supplies are also with safety guides. They’re more competitive and easy to wire, we can wire them with screws. It’s also a good option for 3D printers.

2. Voltage. 3D printers work through two main voltage outputs: the 12V and 24V types. The type of voltage that applies to any 3D printer device relates to the hot end on the unit, which exists on the labeling. Let’s discuss the variations between these two power supply units below.

Specifically, the 12v system features simple parts to acquire. A good example is the pumps, the pumps for the 24v pumps aren’t easy to find. Plus, the wires tend to be larger, and the cost of the 24v units is higher than those of the 12v types.

For the 24v system, the wire is smaller, its average cost is significantly less than the 12v system. When developing a 3D printer, various connections and cables must be present to ensure the best results. We’d better match our 3D printer with the correct voltage unit.

3. Wattage. It’s also crucial for us to evaluate each printer’s wattage and the heating bed’s power rating. Usually, this unit features a control board, a single hot end, five motors, and other components. On average, all of these units expect about 100 watts of power. When we combine this amount with the average rating of the heat bed, we will know the total amount of power wattage required.

One more tip is that the power we have calculated is only 80% of the power supply wattage. We should calculate correctly to get the right power supply wattage. For example: After calculation, the total wattage that the 3D printer needs is 200W, then we need the power supply wattage is: 200W/0.8=250W. So what we need to search for is a 250W power supply.

4. Input Voltage. It refers to what voltage the PSUs(power supply units) could accept from the wall socket. It usually exists on the label of the PSUs. Some power supply’s input voltage is from AC 100 to AC 240V, others can be adjusted from 110V to 220V(reversible) with a switch on the side of the power supply.


What Are Some Reasons for Testing the Power Supply Unit?

Before we connect the plug-in adapter to the 3D printer system, performing a test is crucial first. Some reasons for such caution include:

  1. The consumer market features countless brands and models of PSUs. Each function is different, we must pick and confirm if it is the right power supply for our 3D printer.
  2. Since there are several connections when using the printer, we should confirm the connectivity before using each unit. It is a process that helps avoid instances of short-circuiting or possible fires.
  3. Confirm the power supply is workable and guaranteed safe, and avoid spending more money on a new 3D printer.

How to test the power supply?

We know how important it is to test the power supply now. Following is the steps to test the power supply.

1. Get a millimeter and check the power from the power supply unit. Once we know the wattage and voltage from the power supply, make sure they match the amount what the 3D printer needs. We recommend using the following video(from 10″ to 40″) as a point of reference.

2. Proceed to check if the DC port(DC Power Adapters) is compatible with the port on the printer. If not, we may have to invest in another cable for this process.

3. Evaluate the input voltage of the power supply. We may need to switch the right input voltage to ensure no burning issues can occur. Different regions have different ratings, such as AC110-120 volts in the USA, while the AC 220-240volts in European countries.

4. Double-check the above information, then connect the printer to the power supply unit.

5. If we plan on using an ATX power supply, we could find detailed modification suggestions in this tutorial on the RepRap wiki.


Choosing the right power supply unit is a crucial factor to consider when using a 3D printer. However, these units are sometimes costly, with the guide above, we will find it easy to test and pick the right power supply to get started. Test before using the power supply is super important. It will help us to save more costs and ensure our 3D printers operate well.

CCTV Power Supply

The CCTV industry is becoming more and more popular as people pay more attention to security in their homes and businesses. To ensure CCTV cameras work well, it is important to use a power supply to provide power. How to power them?

There are three popular power supply modes: Independent power supply; Centralized power supply; and POE power supply.

Independent power supply Mode

Independent power supply mode means that one power adapter is powering one security camera independently. It uses a 12V DC power adapter next to each camera.

Following is the diagram:

Advantages of Independent Power Supply

1. Easy to maintain. An independent power supply system is easy to install, protect, and replace. Since each camera connects with an independent power supply, it’s quick to eliminate the faulty camera when it fails. It’s also very convenient to replace the power adapter if the failure is caused by the power system.

2. Avoid the paralysis of the whole monitoring system. Once there is a problem with the power supply system in the centralized power supply mode, without the use of UPS, the entire monitoring system will not work properly. In the independent power supply mode, one or more cameras will stop working due to the power supply failure, which can avoid this kind of paralysis.

Disadvantages of Independent Power Supply

1. High cost. Setting up more power supply will increase the cost. Installation costs will also be higher as it requires more time and labor costs.

2. Inconvenient for centralized control. This mode causes inconvenience for centralized control. It’s difficult to control them all as the power supply system is independent. It is stressful to operate the cameras one by one.

3.  Anti-jamming is weak. As there’re more power supplies in the system, its anti-jamming capability is weak.

Power supply suitable for independent power supply mode







AC 100-240V


DC 12V 2A


AC 100-240V


DC 12V 3A


AC 100-240V


DC 12V 5A


Centralized Power Supply Mode

Centralized power supply refers to using 12V switching power supply to run CCTV cameras. In modern installations with analog cameras, the power supply box is centralized to all installed cameras. The power supply box could be installed in the monitoring room or any other relevant setting in the facility.

Compared with the independent power supply, the main difference between them is that one power supply can power multiple cameras in the centralized power supply. There is a distance limit of 100 meters for the cameras and the power supply in this mode.

Here are the steps involved in setting up this power supply system:

1. Connect a 12V power supply box to the AC power, and then integrate the 2*1.0 red and black power cables through to the camera.

2. We also have to ensure that the cable connects the power supply and camera with a screwed power cord.

The diagram of the centralized power supply is as follows:

Advantages of Centralized Power Supply

1. Competitive in Cost. Although the centralized power supply mode tends to use more cables. The centralized power supply mode is more cost-effective with a high cost and performance rate.

2. Ease of installation. With the centralized power supply mode, the cable connection is simple and manageable for construction.

3. Lower energy consumption. Recent case studies have shown that the centralized power supply mode asks for lower energy consumption.

4. Longer transmission distance. The centralized power supply distance is about 30 meters, and it can reach up to 100 meters by laying oxygen-free pure copper wires.

Disadvantages of Centralized Power Supply

1. Troubleshooting is difficult. It will take more time to troubleshoot the whole line if there’s a problem.

2. May cause the whole system paralysis. In the centralized power supply mode, if the power supply fails and the UPS is not used, the entire CCTV system will be paralyzed.

Power Supply suitable for CCTV centralized power supply mode:



IP Level

Output Voltage


Output Power

AC 100-240V or AC110V220V switch

IP 20

DC 12V 


AC 100-240V or AC110V220V switch

IP 20

DC 24V


AC 100-240V or AC110V220V switch

IP 20



Power over Ethernet(POE) power supply mode

Power over Ethernet(POE) is a technology that passes the power over twisted-pair Ethernet cable to the power devices(PD), such as wireless access points, IP cameras, and VoIP phones in addition to the data that the cable usually carries. It enables one RJ45 cable to provide both data connection and electric power to PDs instead of having a separate cable for each. This mode is available when all the powered devices meet the IEEE 802.3bt standard(or other PoE standards).

Following is the diagram of Power Over Ethernet mode:

Advantages of POE Power Supply

1. With better security. Compared with independent power supply and centralized power supply, POE power supply is safer. Standard POE uses the smart protocol to supply power. If you insert a non-powered device or the line sequence is wrong, the switch will not supply power.

2. Easy for wiring. In the above 2 power supply modes, the line spacing between strong and weak levels is greater than 50cm to guarantee safety. It’s complicated and needs more labor costs. The POE power supply wiring is easy and simple.

3. Longer transmission distance. The 15V POE switch can supply power for 100 meters, and 48V can supply power for 250 meters with the 10M network. If a 48V series power supply switch is used, it can even supply power with a distance of 300~600 meters.

4. Easier to maintain. POE power supply mode is convenient for centralized management. We can power off and restart the cameras individually by plugging in and out the cable from the POE switch.

Disadvantages of POE Power Supply

1. High cost. POE power supply is an intelligent power supply mode, which requires more related technologies and equipment, the cost will be higher than the above 2 modes.

2. More requirements for the environment. POE power supply requires a stable network, otherwise the system may not work properly. Moreover, the POE power supply mode requires all the power devices are meet the PoE standard, which has limitations.


The above 3 power supply modes are the main mode in the CCTV market, with each having its advantages and disadvantages. In practical applications, it is necessary to select the appropriate power supply method according to the environment, cost, and stability. Or use different power supply methods to maximize benefits.

8 Tips to Care for Your Power Adapters

In the Technology ravaged world we exist in right now, having a gadget isn’t enough. More like the oxygen we breathe, we all want to have our devices well powered to ensure optimal usage. 

And when it is powered with the wrong amount of power surge, it will reduce your gadget’s battery life. 

In this post, I’ll explain the practical tips for maintaining a power adapter.

Knowledge About Power Adapter

There’re two parts to the power adapters: a transformer and a power cable. The transformer is going to convert the current from your wall socket (which comes in the form of AC)  to DC(or AC). A power cable connects the transformer to the device that needs to be powered.

The transformer will overheat if power over time, this will lead to the internal irreversible damage. Simultaneously, any section of your power cable can wear away and expose the wires inside which may lead to hazards around your home or workstation.

***Tip: AC(Alternating Current) is a power source that gives electricity to businesses and homes. DC(Alternating Current) is a power source that’s ideal for powering electronic devices. ***

How To Care For Your Power Adapters

Replacing the power adapter always proves to be a pain (and can be expensive). Maintaining the power adapter rightly will help its safe use and enable a longer lifespan for it. Here are some tips that can make this a given.

1. Use a Power Strip

But not just any power strip – always check it out to ascertain that it has a built-in surge protector. 

In addition to offering convenience – allowing you to plug in multiple devices with one outlet-, power strips that are fitted with surge protectors can protect your laptop, phone, and other electronic devices from unexpected irreparable damage to your device.

2. Protect it from Dropping, Throwing and Shock

Looks, they say, are deceptive, and the adapter isn’t left out on this. I’ve discovered that in many instances, the power adapter is not as strong as it looks, because it contains many components. 

The best you can do to navigate these murky waters is to protect it from dropping, being thrown around and also safeguard it from shock, or else, this will lead to damage to the inner components. 

One of my partners used a power adapter that dropped from the table, and then the electricity was shut down when he plugged the adapter into the wall outlet. It doesn’t take an army to kill it off.

3. Working under Proper Temperature

Based on multiple observations, the high temperature may cause destruction to the power adapter and cause the plastic parts to melt.

A low temperature is also not good for the power supply. Because, when the charger works in a too-cold environment, moisture will form in the charger and destroy the circuit board when the internal temperature subsequently rises.

4. Clean the Power Adapter Connectors Regularly

We all love clean cars & sounds, so it’s safe to say that cleanliness is a solution to many problems. But, if you want to clean a power adapter, use a damp cloth, or a good quality antistatic cloth.

Remember, do not use a dry cloth to make sure dust isn’t moving into the connector. Also, it’s important for you to know that do not clean the power adapter with the chemical cleaners.

5. Space and Time for Heat Dissipation

We always know to keep the laptops cool, but the power adapters also need to be chilled off.

Having had multiple usage experiences, working for a long period will lead to overheating for the power adapters. So, ensure you leave space and time for heat dissipation.

In the Summer, checking if the power adapter is overheating regularly might be a good thing to add to your daily checklist. Keep using it in a cool environment or use it for a lesser period of time to keep it cool. This will protect the power adapter & keep it in a good condition as long as possible for your own use.

6. Keep Away from Humidity Environment and Water

The general power adapter is most likely not waterproof, so the best option is to use them indoors, away from the waters. If the power adapter contacts water, disconnect it from the outlet at once and move it away from there.

One easy DIY option that I’ve tried is to thoroughly dry the charger and make sure it is completely dry before I use it again.

7. Avoid Tightly Wrapping your Laptop’s Power Cord

To keep the cable compact & your immediate environment organized, you may be tempted to wrap your power adapter cable in a tight pattern. But doing so can shorten the life of your power adapter. 

Repeatedly doing this puts repetitive stress on the thin copper conductors inside the power cord and will cause them to break in no time.

To avoid this, you can loop your power adapter loosely to avoid cramping the wires. Also, if you can wrap it a different way each time, do it to avoid repetitive stress on the same section while keeping your environs organized.

8. Check the Cables and Power Adapters regularly

Constantly checking the whole power adapter for damage to the transformer and cable, especially for the connection, will be in your best interest.  If you discover a fault, change it to a new one.


Constantly checking the whole power adapter for damage to the transformer and Every gadget has different power needs. Based on informal research of the buying behaviors of individuals, no one wants to keep replacing the same type of gadget by the turn of every week (except you use it as a demo for your YouTube channel).

This is where I think a quality power adapter will perform an essential function if you have it at hand. Using the power adapters correctly is helpful for your pocket and to protect them and keep their lifespan as long as possible.

Charger and Adapter

Electronics can often be confusing to navigate around. Especially if you don’t have a full understanding of the technical details of the product. There are many different cords and accessories that come with an electrical device. These make it difficult to figure out them correctly. It is easy to get the chargers and adapters confused too. They often appear to do the same thing, but they actually perform different actions. Although these actions do complement each other.

1. What is a charger and adapter

A charger is an electronic device that charges a device with a battery or a supercapacitor. The charger provides energy to the battery by plugging into a wall socket.

An adapter is an electronic device that provides power to a device. These include things such as laptops or music players or USB fans. It is a power conversion device. This means that it can take a certain kind of power and convert it into the power which the device needs.

2. What’s the difference between them

Application. A charger is used for devices that have their own battery and energy store. Whereas an adapter is used to supply power to the electronic device when it is plugged in.

Convert Types. Chargers always convert the AC power to DC power. While Power Adapters could convert AC power to AC power or AC power to DC power.

Inner Design. In chargers, there is an AC to DC converter board and DC to DC converter board. In power adapters, there is only 1 converter board which is AC to AC or AC to DC.

Working mode. When using a charger, it will usually stop working when the device is fully charged. However, the power adapters provide power to the device at all times

3. Can I use a charger instead of an adapter?

Adapters can sometimes be used as a charge. An example of this is in the case of laptops. The adapter charges the battery in the laptop with the battery management circuit.

You can use a charger as a power adapter. This is possible if the device requires the same output voltage and current as the charger provides. For example, it is ok to use a 5V2A cellphone charger as an adapter for a 5V2A device. Having said that, this is not recommended, as there is no battery protection design in a power adapter. This could result in damage to the battery.

To ensure that you keep your electronic devices safe, it is always advised to use the right item. Doing so can not only ensure the operation of the device properly but also extend the lifespan of the device.

4. How do I know if I need a charger or an adapter?

4.1 The first thing you need to do is find out whether you are looking to convert the power or charge the device. For converting the AC power to DC power (or AC), a power adapter is the best choice to use. If you are going to charge a device, then it is best to use a charger.

4.2 Confirm whether there is a battery in the device you are using. If there is a battery, then you will need a charger. Mobile phones, handheld gaming systems, etc., all include batteries. While the laptops are excluded from this tip.

4.3 Think about whether you need to supply the power to the device all the time. If yes, then you will need a power adapter. If you only need to supply it with energy for a short amount of time, as it holds the battery itself, then a charger is needed.

5. Cellphone charger and laptop adapter

A cellphone charger is a charger as there is a battery inside of it. This will make confusion about a laptop, why it is called a laptop adapter even though there is a battery inside?

A mobile phone will not work if you remove the battery from it and connect the charger. This is because the mobile charger is only designed to charge the battery. Not to provide the power supply to the mobile for its operation. Mobile phones always take the power supply from the battery, even if the charger is on or not.

The laptop will still turn on if you remove the battery from it and connect the adapter. This is because the adapter is designed to provide the power supply to the laptop for its operation. When you connect the adapter, it will not directly connect to the battery. There is an extra circuit installed in the laptop, this guarantees the battery could be charged from the laptop adapter.

6. Conclusion

It is very easy to mix up the functionality of adapters and chargers, yet there is a difference in what they do. Both of them are to supply energy to the devices in different ways. The chargers provide power to the battery which then stores this energy. The adapters convert the power to the devices, so must be plugged in at all times. Knowing what they are used for is very helpful so that you can choose the right one for your gadget.

Laptop Power Adapter

A Laptop is very important in our daily life and work, it runs with power. All the laptops use DC(Direct Current) power to operate. There’re 2 forms of power methods for the laptop: battery and laptop power adapter.

What is a laptop power adapter?

Even though there’s a battery in the laptop, the power adapter is still necessary because the battery will not charge the laptop entirely. A laptop power adapter is a device that converts the AC(alternative current) power to DC(direct current) power for the laptop to work. The power adapter is the small and heavy box connected to the cables between the laptop and the wall outlet.

Laptop Power Adapter Types

There’re 2 types of power adapters for laptops: the AC adapter and the DC Adapter. These adapters are also called chargers. They convert the AC/DC power into the DC power for the laptop.

AC Adapter

The AC adapter converts AC power from the wall socket to the DC power for small appliances. Such as Laptops, cell phones, computers, and DVD players. The AC adapter is also used to charge the batteries in the laptop.

DC Adapter

The laptops work with DC power, it seems a DC adapter is not necessary for them. However, most DC power sources provide a voltage that is insufficient for a laptop. We need a DC adapter to convert this power to a higher voltage one. So the laptop can use to charge the battery or operate. Cars, in-flight outlets, and solar power panels or batteries are examples of DC power sources.

Is it possible to use a different charger for a laptop?

The short answer is maybe, while it’s not suggested. I tried using a 19v4a 90w power adapter for my laptop which requires 18.5V 3.5A 65w power, and it works well with no problem at all. However, it’s really not safe and not worth the risk.

Here we take some examples for more details:

1. Different voltages with the same current. For example, if the laptop’s original power adapter is 19V 4A, and if we use 18V 4A, the different voltage will potentially damage the circuit in the laptop.

2. Different currents with the same voltage. For example, if the laptop’s original power adapter is 19V 5A, and we use the 19V 4A, the lower current might fry the power supply. If we change to 19V 6A, it’s OK, the laptop will draw the current it needs while running.

The above examples are based on the same connector type.

To make things easier, we should use the same voltage and current power adapter for our laptops. And, if the voltage is same as what the laptop needs, a higher current power adapter is also available.

How to choose the laptop power adapter replacement?

As there are so many different adapters out there, it’s also important to figure out which one your laptop needs before you buy one. Before we can move on, we need to check the power (voltage and current), the AC cord, and the DC connection.

1. Power This is how much wattage of the laptop power adapter, multiplied by voltage and current. They’re written on the label of the original power adapter, or we could check with the laptop vendor.

2. AC cable Actually we need to confirm the AC plug type on the AC cable. Normally Type A for China, Japan and North American countries, Type C for Europe. More details can check in this blog.

3. DC connector type, There’re several types of DC connectors for laptops: The type-C plug is the most popular now, as it’s interchangeable, you can use them for other laptops, cell phones and other devices with the same plug. Molex connector is also usually used for personal computers. Many laptop power adapters are designed with a DC jack. The DC jack comes in different sizes. Figure out more details here.


A laptop power adapter offers the power for the laptop to run and charges the laptop battery. The right power adapter for the laptop is incredibly important, which should be with the correct voltage and current, AC plug, and DC connector type, any wrong information will damage or destroy the laptop or power supply. If without an idea of them, contact us to discover more.


Power Supply AC Plug

What is the AC plug? I may need to think for a while to give you an accurate answer. We use it together with the electrical device every day. An AC plug is a portable electrical connection with 2-3 metal prongs, which is typically located in a shielded electrical outlet. It’s normally connected with the AC wall outlet.

The enclosed grip covering on the AC plug is for us to plug in and out from a power outlet. An insulated cable delivers power from the plug to the gadget.

Types of AC Plugs

There are various types of AC plugs. I will list most of them in this article.

AC Plug Type


Application Countries


Type A

USA, Canada, Mexico & Japan 

  • 2 pins without Ground

  • 15 A

  • Always at 100-127V

Type B

USA, Canada, Mexico & Japan 

  • 3 pins with Ground

  • 15 A

  • Always at 100-127V

Type C

Europe, South America & Asia

  • 2 pins without Ground

  • 2.5 A

  • Always at 220-240V

Type D


  • 3 pins with Ground

  • 5 A

  • Always at 220-240V

Type E

France, Belgium, Poland, Slovakia & Czech

  • 2 pins with Ground

  • 16 A

  • Always at 220-240V

Type F

Europe & Russia, exclude for UK & Ireland

  • 2 pins with Ground

  • 16 A

  • Always at 220-240V

Type G

UK, Ireland, Malta, Malaysia & Singapore

  • 3 pins with Ground

  • 13 A

  • Always at 220-240V

Type H


  • 2 pins with Ground

  • 16 A

  • Always at 220-240V

Type I

Australia, New Zealand, China & Argentina

  • 2 pins without Ground

  • 3 pins with Ground

  • 10 A /15 A

  • Always at 220-240V

Type J

Switzerland, Liechtenstein & Rwanda

  • 3 pins with Ground

  • 10 A

  • Always at 220-240V

Type K

Denmark & Greenland

  • 3 pins with Ground

  • 16 A

  • Always at 220-240V

Type L

Italy & Chile

  • 3 pins with Ground

  • 10 A & 16 A

  • Always at 220-240V

Type M

South Africa

  • 3 pins with Ground

  • 15 A

  • Always at 220-240V

Type N


  • 3 pins with Ground

  • 10 A & 20 A

  • Always at 100-240V

Type O


  • 3 pins with Ground

  • 16 A

  • Always at 220-240V

For more information about the AC plug types for different countries, please kindly check the full list or contact us.

Power Adapter AC Plugs

For the Power adapters, there’re 2 types equipped with AC plugs: Wall bricks and Desktop power adapters.

The AC plugs for the wall bricks are fixed on the cover, 4 types of AC plugs are usually used: Type A, Type C, Type G and Type I 2 pins. The interchangeable AC plug is also available for the wall mounted power adapters now, which is super convenient for the universal demand in different countries and areas.

The desktop power adapters connect with the AC plugs by a cable, the connection between them is called AC pole, there’re 3 types of AC poles usually used in the market:

  • C8 inlet 2pins, no earth contact, meet for appliance Class II, suitable for domestic audio, video, radio equipment and doubly insulated power supplies.
  • C14 inlet 3pins, earth contact, meet for appliance Class I, commonly used on personal computers and peripherals.
  • C6 inlet 3pins, earth contact, meet for appliance Class I, suitable for many small switched-mode power supplies used for laptops.

Advantages of the AC plug

Rather than overusing electricity, it should only be utilized as necessary. Having a proper supply of current flowing through the electrical equipment is critical to the efficient use of electrical resources. AC plugs and sockets should be utilized for specific electrical devices to get the necessary power.

These plugs and sockets deliver AC power to the electrical devices. This means that the plug, cable, and socket all have a role in the electrical connection. Let’s discuss the advantage of the AC plug as below. 

1. It is best for High-Level Appliances: These AC plugs are often used for high-level appliances, primarily used in factories that require higher power than the usual power used at home. After much research, I have concluded that the plugs will assist industries in operation, so breakdown or frequent repairs can be avoided and managed. 

2. It has a rigid Wire Architecture: The AC plugs and sockets share certain similarities in their design, construction and materials. They are resistant to corrosion, allowing the machine to run at total capacity. An innovative element of both appliances is the inclusion of a bike, which helps safeguard the appliances’ electrical current and output.

3. It is superior: When compared to connecting cables and bare wires, it is clear that plugs and sockets are significantly more secure. Compared with other company supplies, they’re also more affordable. Appliances are protected by this circuit breaker when they are in use.

4. Competitive: Compared to other wires and cables, it is not expensive.

5. Convenient: Simple to set up, easy to work with, durable, and long-lasting.

6. Safe: Whenever you experience an unusually high electric current flow through the electronic components, it will serve as a circuit breaker. As a result, it helps keep your appliances and properties secure.

How to select the right Power Adapter AC plug

This is a question, I will show 2 tips for this:

1.Confirm where you’d like to use/sell the power adapter, for me, as I live in China, Type A is my best choice.

2. If the business is for worldwide or traveling worldwide frequently, the interchangeable AC plug is better.


An AC Plug allows you to charge your gadgets at home, at work, or anywhere else that has an electrical outlet. The majority of devices come with their own AC adaptor, which can be damaged over time due to wear and tear or physical stress. Several companies provide products and gadgets with varying characteristics that require varied power supply ranges to charge their batteries.

When replacing their plug, most individuals merely look to see if the pins on the AC adapter match the pins on their gadgets. However, because the ratings for each brand of adapter vary, this might cause irreversible harm to your gadgets, if need help, ask the professor or vendor.

Power Adapter Certificates in different countries


With the increasing demand for digital products, power supply safety is super important for device working. Many countries required safety standards for power supplies, which are against fire, electric shock and injury.

Regional Safety Mark

As follows, we’ll show the certificates of the power supply for some countries.







United States


















United Kindom



















RCM(C-tick & SAA)

There’re many other standards in the market, like CQC for China, NF for French, CB for member countries of IECEE, it is a big challenge to state all of them in this note, we’re trying to understand some regulations which usually used.

Equipment Class

The safty standards also identify the equipment into 3 classes: Class I, Class II and Class III .

Class I

Equipment designed with basic insulation and protective earth ground. With the 2 protections, the equipment are protected from electric shock.

In summary, the equipment are Class I appliances with the following design:

-Made of Metal

-Has a 3 pins cable

-Has a metal earth pin

This standard is usually applied to industrial equipment.

Class II

Equipment designed with double or reinforced insulation. Thus the ground is not needed.

In summary, the equipment are Class II appliances with the following design:

-The case is plastic

-There’s a double box symbol on the rating plate

This standard is usually applied to commercial equipment.

Class III

The equipments with a SELV(Satety Extra Low Voltage) supply circuit, no more than  42.4Vp-p/30V ac(r.m.s) or 60v dc, and does not generate the hazardous voltage.

In summary, it’s usually applied for medical devices like:

-Cochlear implants

-Implantable pacemaker pulse generator

-Renal Stents

-Wearable automated external defibrillators

-High frequency ventilators


With our digital usage increasing, the power supply safety and reliability is also developing, there will be more and more standards accordingly. Prowin will follow the market demand and offer the right power solution.

DC connector types for power supply

There’re many DC connector types for power supply, we’d like to discuss some DC types and how to select the DC connectors in this article.

As we all know, to select the right DC connectors, it’s necessary to know some normal types and how they work.

DC connector Types

There’re many different DC connectors, let’s discuss some widely used ones here.

  1. DC plug. The most normal DC connector is the DC plug, both straight plugs and angle plugs are available. And there is size for the outer sleeve and inner pin, following are the popular sizes:                                     2.5X0.7mm





Other sizes are also available, such as 6.3×3.0mm, 3.0×1.1mm, and 4.5×2.7mm, while they’re not used widely like the above sizes.

  1. USB port. The USB port is more and more popular for many devices now. Many smart electrical devices need USB port for charge. There’re also 3 USB types as following:

The USB Type-C is widely applied in cellphones, notebooks, and mobile devices now. As the maximum power ratings of the Type-C USB are up to 100W(20V 5A) now, together with the widespread adoption and simplified design integration, the Type-C USB is attractive for power applications. There’s also demand for USB Micro and USB Type-A connectors, while they’re not as popular as before.

  1. Special Port or Customized connectors. Some devices need special ports like Molex 4-port connector, TE connector, Audio Micro plugs or others. Where there’s demand, there’s supply.

Select the DC connectors

After knowing about so many kinds of DC connectors, it’s convenient to select the right DC connectors. Following are some tips for selecting:

  1. DC Jack Size. Please keep an eye on the inner pin and outer sleeve size. It may be helpful for selecting the right connector.
  2. DC Connector conductor. There’s positive polarity and negative polarity for the DC plugs, ensure the right polarity as reversing the conductor is acceptable. The default setting is center positive.

  1. Other DC connectors. Some gadgets require other special DC connectors. It may be a plugged-in connection, which is easy to connect if the connector is compatible with the device.

4. Open End. Some projects need to connect the devices openly, then an open end of the power supply comes. The open end is convenient for flexible connection. Some of our clients also asked for this kind of end.

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With the above information, it would be helpful to save time in selecting the DC connector. If any more questions, feel free to discuss with us by comments or contact us directly.